Constructive alignment

Graphic courtesy of Doug Schaefer

To promote self-reliant learning,  learning outcomes should be clear and transparent, as well as continually feedback to the student. In order to achieve this goal Constructive Alignment (Biggs & Tang, 2007) is a good methodology. Constructive alignment is an outcomes-based approach in which the learning outcomes are defined before teaching takes place. In the second step, the conception of the examination takes place, derived from the learning outcomes. Only when (mostly in an iterative process) learning outcomes and the testing are harmonized, the appropriate teaching and learning methods are selected.